Cluj Citadel



On the actual territory of Cluj there was an important settlement of the Roman Dacia, called Napocca, but short time after Dacia was conquered by the Romans it was destroyed, so that in 124 there was founded a new urban settlement, Municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napoca, on the right shore of the Samus (Somes) river. The citadel built by the romans had as borders Canalul Morilor and the Gypsies river. In the period of the 9th-10th centuries there was a settlement called Castrum Clus, that was only a part of the surface of the Roman Citadel .

Because of the wars with the tartars, the population of the citadel was decimated and there were brought groups of sacs colonists, on the order of Stefan the 5th of Hungary, this having an urban organization until the 15th century. In 1405 the Hungarian King, Sigismund of Luxembourg accorded to Cluj the name of Free Regent City. By that time the citadel had about 5000 inhabitants that had as occupation agriculture, atelier working, the specific leisure of the town.

The fortification has 20 towers and gates, that were named by the brotherhoods, for example: The Bastion of the Masons and the Bastion of Blacksmiths.

The most important personality of the Citadel of Cluj is Matei Corvin, who was King of Hungary between 1458 and 1495, born here and the one who took care of the development of the city, according 41 privileges of his place of birth, defending in the conflicts with the neighbours. So, the citadel of Cluj got the  European Recognition until the 15th century because of its wonderful late gothic buildings (The Romano-Catholic Church Saint Mihail), the high level lifestyle, the merchandising and the culture.

An important role in its realization had the book-man Gáspár Heltai, who contributed on the forming of the culture as well as on the modernization of the town, that had a typography, a public bathroom, a paper plant and a beer plant. Along all these the Báthory dynasty and Gabriel Bethlen had an important role in the economical increasing, the latter having become a protector of the city, being helped by its finalization as an important citadel. Becoming in the end the capital of Transilvania, after the conquest of Hungary by the ottomans and the declaration of Transilvania as autonomic princedom under Ottoman suzerainty.


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Cluj Citadel / 1Cluj Citadel / 2Cluj Citadel / 3Cluj Citadel / 4Cluj Citadel / 5



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